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Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity.

The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues.

The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus. On this paper we define monads on projective spaces and extend them to multiprojective spaces with a view to constructing vector bundles of low rank in comparison to the dimension of the ambient space. In Civil Engineering and Construction Industry, crushed stones are known as aggregates and are the basic materials in modern construction work.

The current methods for crushing stones to produce aggregates are characterized by the use of large, expensive and centralised crushing plants, which are beyond the reach of small scale entrepreneurs. In addition, such centralized plants are often located too far away from the point of use of aggregates leading to prohibitively high cost of the same. Though, the practice is hazardous, laborious and hardly profitable, the technology is common in Kenya.

It is against this background that the proposed research work has been formulated in order to study the crushing characteristics of various stones and to subsequently come up with an optimum, dynamical ad structural design of a small stone crusher for small scale entrepreneurs. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the domain of innovative development of Engineering products; the case in point being a small- mechanised stone crusher that is cost effective, environmentally and user friendly.

Further, the study will generate information on stone characteristics that are relevant in aggregate formation. The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July , aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model.

The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing The moisture content of the samples was 7. The sample size for triaxial testing was mm diameter and mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test 30 min. These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity.

Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and fold were detected between Ae. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host.

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products.

Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible.

Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin. Design: Retrospective record review Setting: Eye clinic, Garissa Provincial General Hospital Methods: Records for surgeries for age related cataracts were retrieved and analysed retrospectively.

Results: A total of surgeries were reviewed, 81 The average age for the patients undergoing the cataract surgeries was 67 years SD Fifty four patients Causes of poor outcome included ocular co-morbidity 7 eyes , surgical complications 4 eyes and post-operative complications 2 eyes. The eyes with good vision one month after surgery increased from 74 Recommendation: Patient selection, good management of surgical complications and proper biometry are needed to improve on the outcome of cataract surgery at Garissa Hospital. Orbital involvement in tuberculosis is rare even in areas where TB is endemic.

We present a 17 year old patient who presented with a third recurrence of orbital and forehead abscesses. On orbital CT-scan, the patient had pan-sinusitis, right orbital and frontal abscesses, bilateral proptosis and frontal bone destruction. Initially the diagnosis of orbital TB was based on a good response to antituberculosis medications and it was later confirmed by histology showing caseating TB granulomas.

This study examined the relationship between Board diversity and financial performance of firms listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange.

In Desperate Search of the Lesser Spotted Pink Salamander from Ghangi Blah

Using the Ordinary Least Squares OLS regression, the results show that there is a weak positive association between board diversity and financial performance. Overall, the results indicate a statistically not significant effect of board diversity on financial performance except for the independent effect of board study specialization on dividend yield. The results partially concur with agency and resource dependency theories of corporate governance as well as similar empirical studies. Ensuing implications for theory, policy and practice as well as methodology are also discussed.

Firm-level institutions constitute the internal organizational environment which define the context in which strategic decisions are made and implemented. Effective and successful strategy implementation requires apt institutionalization of the strategy. Logically, firm-level institutions have an indirect effect on corporate performance through their direct effect on strategy implementation. In this study, a direct effect of the firm-level institutions on corporate performance was investigated.

Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, ten firm-level institutions were captured under two broad dimensions of administrative systems and resource competencies. Performance implications of these firm-level institutions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, most of the firm-level institutions were manifest to a large extent. The results also indicate that a very strong positive relationship exists between firm-level institutions and various indicators of corporate performance.

However, the overall results for the effect of firm-level institutions on corporate performance were statistically not significant. The results partially concur with pertinent theories as well as similar empirical studies. Based on the findings, implications for theory, methodology, and managerial practice as well as areas for further study are identified.

There are various elements that interact to render performance outcomes in Nongovernmental organizations. These could be organizational, personal and environmental factors. This study set out to examine the interaction of personal factors, structure and the likely performance outcomes so as to inform strategy theory and practice in nongovernmental organizations. We tested for the interaction of personal factors namely tenure, education, profession and age, structures of NGOs classified as national, international and network and performance outcomes.

The data was drawn from NGOs operating in Uganda. The results showed that under the different structure settings personal factors differed in their strength of predicting performance. Save for education under network structure, the rest of the factors had very low and insignificant coefficients.

The study raised questions for further investigation into the behavior of Nongovernmental organizations and the influence of personal factors. The outcomes provide rich insights for both scholars and practitioners towards a better understanding of this growing sector in African countries. We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in NGOs. Configurations are composed of organizational elements that render certain outcomes collectively rather than individually.

This study set out to establish the implications of strategy and resource configurations on performance of Nongovernmental organizations. We tested for strategy with the sub variables of resources as predictors of performance in the tangible and intangible sub domains. Using interaction terms, results revealed that different configuration settings rendered into various performance outcomes.

Strategy —tangible resource models had high coefficients but were not significant in predicting tangible, intangible and main performance. On the contrary strategy — intangible resources were significant with other domains save with intangible performance. The three way interaction term was not significant although with high prediction power across the performance variables. We conclude that configuration approach offers promise in better understanding of the performance of NGOs. The study outcomes have rich insights for both scholars and practitioners.

We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in the NGO sector. The suitability for use in the canning industry of eight new dry bean varieties, selected from new advanced drought tolerant dry bean lines was studied. Physical attributes including seed size, dimensions, hundred seed mass, bulk density, water uptake, volume increase and leaching characteristics on soaking were evaluated. DSS The rate of water uptake was highest in DNB The extent of final water uptake was highest in DSS Herein we report on the semisynthesis and biological evaluation of b-amino alcohol derivatives of the natural product totarol and other simple aromatic systems.

All beta-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol exhibited higher antiplasmodial activity than totarol [IC The phenyl and naphthyl b-amino alcohol derivatives were much less active than their corresponding totarol equivalents. The majority of the b-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol were more active against K1 than the D10 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a trend similar to the inverse relationship observed with the established aryl-amino alcohol antimalarial mefloquine.

Selected compounds were shown to affect erythrocyte morphology, inhibit erythrocyte invasion and trigger CQ accumulation. Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected.


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We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires randomly selected urban dairy farming households and non-dairying neighbours.

One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups.

Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route.

Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea.

In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi. All over the world and specifically sub-Saharan Africa, there is massive scaling up of availability and accessibility to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Among adolescents, the challenge assumes greater proportions given the unique circumstances the group is exposed to. For instance, emotional, neurocognitive and physical development changes are some of the challenges. The transition from paediatric to adult state coupled with the knowledge about their HIV status that prompts them to initiate treatment on their own is to say the least, monumental challenges for adolescents.

Moreover, adolescents are generally in school where they are subjected to stigma, discrimination and unfavourable school schedules that do not permit them time to access treatment and medication. As cited earlier, a near optimal adherence is a challenge for all patients, and non-adherent behavior is a big problem during adolescent period.

The aim of the study was therefore to determine adherence levels to antiretroviral drugs among adolescents and also establish levels of appointment keeping to clinic visits and pharmacy drug refi J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth. Sexually active minors were enrolled in South Africa only. Risk behavior, HIV testing, and clinical data were obtained at follow-up visits. African MSM are not frequently engaged for research, have high HIV incidence, need urgent risk reduction counseling, and may represent a suitable population for future HIV prevention trials.

Cult Health Sex. Epub Sep Partners and clients of female sex workers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among female sex workers compared to Kibera women in other occupations.

An unexpected finding, however, was that female sex workers with a romantic partner had significantly fewer sexual partners per unit time than female sex workers without such a partner. This finding held for multivariate analysis, with negative binomial regression analyses showing that having a romantic partner was significantly associated with reductions in total number of both sexual partners overall and with sexual partners who did not use condoms.

In contrast, HIV status, education, number of immediate family members and levels of alcohol consumption were non-significant factors for both regression analyses. Results suggest that female sex workers' romantic partners act as more than sources of possible HIV infection; rather, romantic partners appear to have an important positive impact on health. We discuss this finding in light of possible harm-reduction programmes focusing on female sex workers and their romantic partners. PMID: Hum Ecol DOl LLC Abstract A basic ecological and epidemiological question is why some women enter into commercial sex work while other women in the same socio-economic environment never do.

To address this question respondent driven sampling principles were adopted to recruit and collect data for female sex workers and same aged women who never engaged in commercial sex in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Univariate analysis indicated that basic kinship measures, including number of family members seen during adolescence and at present, not having a male guardian while growing up, and earlier times of ending relationships with both male and female guardians were associated with commercial sex work in Kibera.

Multivariate analysis via logistic regression modeling showed that not having a male guardian during childhood, low education attainment and a small number of family members seen at adolescence were all significant predictors of entering sex work. By far the most important predictor of entering sex work was not having any male guardian, e. Results are interpreted in light of the historic pattem of sub-Saharan African child fostering and their relevance for young women in Kibcra today.

Nairobi Kenya E. Hallgrimsdortir: M. Jansson' E. J ; Ngugi et al. Yet, despite extensive epidemiological research on the biological parameters of Hl'V transmission between African FSWs and their commercial clients, there remain important knowledge gaps in the basic social epidemiology, defined as the study of the distributions of health outcomes and their social determinants of African commercial sex work Berkman and Kawachi ; Poundstone et al. At face value the question of why women enter sex work appears overly simplistic, with economic need combined with a lack of opportunities the apparently overwhelming answer.

However, in a study of rural Ugandan sex workers, Gysels et al. This paper reports a study estimating the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in people and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi. A repeated cross-sectional survey was carried out among randomly selected cattle keepers in Dagoretti, their dairy cattle and their non-cattle-keeping neighbours in the dry and wet seasons of A survey was also carried out among a group of people living with human immunodeficiency virus HIV.

Quality control consisted of blind reviews of slides, examining split samples and confirming slide results with IFA. The laboratory quality control system showed some inconsistency within and between different tests, indicating challenges in obtaining consistent results under difficult field and working conditions. In conclusion, this is the first reported study to simultaneously survey livestock, livestock keepers and their neighbours for cryptosporidiosis.

We failed to find evidence that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is important overall in this community. This study also draws attention to the importance of quality control and its reporting in surveys in developing countries. This study examined the causal relationship between foreign exchange rates and stock prices in Kenya from November to May The data set consisted of monthly observations of the NSE stock price index and the nominal Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rates.

The objective was to establish the causal linkages between leading prices in the foreign exchange market and the Nairobi Securities Exchange NSE. The empirical results show that foreign exchange rates and stock prices are non-stationary both in first differences and level forms, and the two variables are integrated of order one, in Kenya.

Secondly, we tested for co-integration between exchange rates and stock prices. The results show that the two variables are co-integrated.


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Thirdly, we used error-correction models instead of the classical Granger-causality tests since the two variables are co-integrated. The empirical results indicate that exchange rates Granger-causes stock prices in Kenya. Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from to The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the year audit, biopsies were processed of which There was greater number of odontogenic tumours Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit.

The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity. ABSTRACT Background: An accurate estimation of renal function in children is important in optimising the dose of many drugs used in paediatric oncology for allows clinical monitoring of the nephrotoxic effects of cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. The glomerular filtration rate GFR is widely accepted as the best index of renal function in patients. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in the paediatric oncology unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Objectives: To determine the glomerular filtration rate profiles of paediatric oncology patients and to assess changes that had occured over a period of at least six months of continuing cancer chemotherapy. Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Paediatric patients who had an established diagnosis of cancer and had been on chemotherapy for at least six months.

Results: Out of the children enrolled in the study 43 had abnormal kidney function. The other 72 children had normal kidney function. Patients aged less than five years and those with solid tumors had a higher likelihood of having an abnormal GFR compared to their older counterparts and those with lymphomas and leukemias Conclusions: Monitoring of GFR should be done regularly as decline occurs as one continues on chemotherapy especially for the ones below 5yrs and those with solid malignancies. Virion structures including capsids must tolerate extreme alkaline environments of pH 10 and above.

The phage is morphologically and genetically related to lambdoid viruses of the family Siphoviridae Fig. Capsid morphogenesis genes are homologous both in order and predicted amino acid sequence to the corresponding genes of the coliphage HK97 Fig. Like many dsDNA viruses, HK97 assembles multiple subunits of a single gene product into a protocapsid around a transient protein-scaffolding core that is subsequently cleaved by a protease at the time of DNA packaging triggering expansion and stabilization of the mature capsid [3].

Other non-closed structures that are seen in the sample are presumably incomplete capsids Fig 1 C and 1D. We are currently investigating whether capsid morphogenesis including incomplete structures and proheads produced from the expression plasmid in E. We are formulating capsid assembly buffers to produce fully closed stable VLP in vitro. Weexpectthe MHP C-terminus can be used to display antigens on the prohead surface while modifications of the N-terminus may be used for packaging antigens internally providing a versatile VLP platform for vaccine development and other nanomedicine applications.

A chemical investigation of the chloroform extract of the roots of Uvaria ludida Benth. Annonaceae , an important African traditional medicine, led to the isolation of six new compounds; three pyrenes, 2-hydroxy-1,8-dimethoxypyrene 1 , 8-methoxy-1,2-methylenedioxypyrene 2 , and 7-hydroxymethoxy-1,2-methylenedioxypyrene 3 , two pyrenediones, 2-hydroxy-1,8-pyrenedione 4 and 2-methoxy-1,8-pyrenedione 5 , and a sesquiterpene, - oxo-isodaucenoic acid 6 , together with eight known compounds The structural elucidation by spectroscopic studies of the compounds isolated is described.

While pyrenes did not exhibit strong cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL cells, pyrenediones showed strong cytotoxicity. Although derivation of the kinematic equations of the combine harvester reel is readily achieved, certain inferences thereof suggest possible improvements in its kinematical design.

A mathematically computed reference value of the reel index ratio of the product of the reel radius and rotational velocity to the reel advance velocity is found to be larger than commonly recommended values. The point, either spatial or temporal, within the cycle of reel motion, at which the tinebar should preferably enter the crop is discussed. The pick-up performance of the tines is qualitatively analyzed and its possible improvement through redesign of reel tine kinematics is suggested.

Yet epidemiological, etiological, and health association to sexual dysfunction has only begun to be explored in Kenya. To determine the prevalence, types of sexual dysfunction and their socio demographic correlate in diabetic patients. Descriptive cross- sectional study The study was conducted at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital.

This is the main referral hospital in Kenya. A total of participants were enrolled in the study. The participants were composed of females aged between years and males aged between years.

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In males, prevalence of sexual dysfunctions were: erectile dysfunction The female sexual dysfunction was Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission wet and the low transmission dry seasons. Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast.

After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. Results: A total of female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1. Anopheles gambiae s. Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. Water relations are among the most important physical phenomena that affect the use of soils for agricultural, ecological, environmental, and engineering purposes. To formulate soil-water relationships, soil hydraulic properties are required as essential inputs.

The most important hydraulic properties are the soil-water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity.

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The objective of this study was to determine the soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol, at Kabete Campus Field Station. Use of an internal drainage procedure to characterize the hydraulic properties and soil and water retention curves allowed for the establishment of the moisture and matric potential at field capacity and permanent wilting point. The PWP was attained at soil moisture contents of 0. Horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat was high at 6. Ksat in the vertical direction was higher than horizontal and ranged from 8.

The Ap horizon also had the highest crop extractable water. Though the AB and Bt1 had the same water content at low matric suction, the variation was very wide as the SWRC approached saturation point. Bt1 and Bt2 also had similar water contents at suction range of — 7kPa after which Bt1, tended towards Bt3. Bt3 had the narrowest range of crop extractable water and thus was attributed to texture.

The Bt3 retained the most amount of water at 0. The study observed that the field capacity, crop available water contents and hydraulic conductivities were influenced positively by soil organic matter. Objective: To assess the effects of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with radiculopathy sciatica , by assessing reduction of pain at short term 3 weeks and intermediate term 12 weeks.

Design: This was a prospective study done between August and July at Kikuyu Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Centre in Kenya involving patients. Methods: Patient selection was consecutive as the need for the epidural injection arose or was found necessary. After the epidural injection, patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Four patients had a repeat injection and two patients ended up being operated on. Conclusion: Epidural steroid injection reduces pain in the majority of well selected patients with low back pain associated with radiculopathy.

This seems to be short lived though. There is need for this patients to be followed up longer. Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.

Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases males, females of prolapsed intervertebral disc over 11 years between January and December were analyzed for location, number of prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions. Seventy seven PID was commonest in the 31 — 50 year age group females M: F is Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females and is associated with trauma. This study was carried out over a period of ten weeks between June and August at the KNH theatres.

A total of patients scheduled for elective surgery whose blood had been crossmatched prior to being taken to theatre were recruited into the study. Majority of requests in the study period were requests for whole blood while requests for other blood products were rarely made. Most surgical teams made requests for two units of blood for the adults for most surgical procedures. Cross-matching of one unit of blood per patient however predominated followed by cross-matching of two units per patient. Single unit transfusions for adult patients were the most common despite requests for two units being the majority.

However in the category of children the average blood volume transfused was The overall Cross-match to Transfusion ratio during the study period was 1. Most of the blood that was cross-matched The mean estimated duration blood products were kept out of the cold chain was 17 minutes. The methods mainly used to reduce the need for pre-operative blood transfusions included use of diathermy, pre-operative hemodilution and use of hypotensive anesthesia.

The main transfusion triggers were estimated blood loss, conjuctival pallour and change in haemodynamic status. In the study subjects above 14 years, the mean estimated blood loss triggering transfusion was mls. The study established that all patients received peri-operative fluids with crystalloid infusions predominating. There was a highly significant relationship P. Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of rabbits kept by a household.

One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant under-reporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm.

The results show that such under-reporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant underreporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such underreporting is not serious enough.

The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x T.

Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain. We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.

Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between and to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize Zea mays L. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize—cowpea and single crop maize with manure.

The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD. The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency WUE. Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages.

The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and progress to date of this collaborative effort toward the globalization of rheumatology.

The aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Mondia whytei roots and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. Bioactivity guided fractionation of the chloroform root extract yielded stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene. Stigmasterol 7. Co-administration of naloxone failed to antagonize the analgesic activity of stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene in the formalin test.

We concluded that both stigmasterol and 9-hexacosene possess potential analgesic effects which are most likely mediated by their anti-inflammatory activities rather than through opioid receptor system. PfEMP1 is a family of cytoadhesive surface antigens expressed on erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. These surface antigens play a role in immune evasion and are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the malaria parasite.

Previous studies have suggested a role for a specific subset of PfEMP1 called "group A" in severe malaria. To explore the role of group A PfEMP1 in disease, we measured the expression of the var genes that encode them in parasites from clinical isolates collected from children suffering from malaria. We also looked at the ability of these clinical isolates to induce rosetting of erythrocytes, which indicates a cytoadhesion phenotype that is thought to be important in pathogenesis. These two sets of data were correlated with the presence of two life-threatening manifestations of severe malaria in the children: impaired consciousness and respiratory distress.

Using regression analysis, we show that marked rosetting was associated with respiratory distress, whereas elevated expression of group A-like var genes without elevated rosetting was associated with impaired consciousness. The results suggest that manifestations of malarial disease may reflect the distribution of cytoadhesion phenotypes expressed by the infecting parasite population. The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change.

Survey data was collected from farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change. However, the livestock keepers in the ASALs view the CQL as an impediment to their main source of livelihoods because it entails livestock movement restrictions, thus constraining unfettered livestock marketing. Available literature shows that there is a dearth of information on the economics of livestock diseases control in Kenya in terms of its impacts on social welfare.

Employing the CQL as a case study, this study shows that an application of analytic techniques that combine disease risk analysis and conventional cost-benefit modelling that incorporates some aspects that are specific to livestock diseases and their control strategies can generate indices of economic impacts of livestock diseases control on social welfare.

The study finds that the livestock keepers and traders in Kenya do not consider CBPP a major problem to warrant livestock movement restrictions, yet the official records of the veterinary authorities indicate that CBPP is a major threat to the cattle industry in Kenya.

This study shows that such expenditures are economically and socially justifiable. Nevertheless, the study finds some operational inefficiencies in the enforcement of the CQL requirements. The authors, therefore, undertake an evaluation of alternative CBPP control strategies and conclude that it would be more cost effective to shift the CQL from its current location to the international borders of the arid districts, provided that this action is preceded by adequate CBPP control preparatory measures, as described in the paper.

A total of households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

The camel is the dominant livestock in North Eastern province where it provides sustenance to many people especially during the frequent dry periods when other animals die or are unthrifty. Camel milk from North Eastern Province in Kenya is widely marketed in those areas but is also currently being sold in distant markets in Nairobi and other places.

An expanded camel milk market provides an opportunity for increased income that can lead to improved pastoral livelihoods. Most of the milk is collected from individual pastoralists, bulked and then taken by transporters to urban areas. While some milk is boiled before sale, some of the milk however is marketed as raw thus exposing the population to zoonotic diseases.

In an investigation to find the prevalence of Brucellosis, the main zoonotic agent in milk, samples of milk for marketing were collected as well as serum samples from camels in North Eastern Province A total of three hundred and eighty four camel milk samples from Garrissa and Wajir Districts were tested using the Milk Ring Test MRT and out of the total, fifty nine 59 samples The results of the milk ring test on the samples tested indicated that Four 4 samples 2.

The seroprevalence of brucellosis in camels is low in extensively kept pastoralist camels. Some of the recommendations to avoid the risk of zoonotic diseases include increased awareness on pasteurization of camel milk, proper milk handling and milk testing before pooling. Participatory epidemiological Research was conducted in Turkana to identify the two most important livestock diseases, and then characterize their incidence and the economic impact.

The study was carried out between 12th to 26th September Semi-structured interviews, guided by checklists were completed with groups of respondents in each of the 16 randomly selected villages adakars to collect data on livestock diseases and their impact on the livelihood of the people. Simple ranking techniques, proportional piling exercises and matrix scoring methods were used to collect data on the importance of the diseases identified.

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Matrix scoring of clinical signs was used to correlate the disease terms provided by the respondents in local language with the scientific names. Disease impact matrix scoring DIMS was used to correlate the diseases to the economic losses, while participatory mapping, time lines and seasonal calendars were used describe the spatial and seasonal distribution of the diseases.

Transect drives was used to collect data on the pasture conditions. These losses led to reduced income and food insecurity at the household levels. Respondents indicated that these challenges have made people worse off than they were 20 and 10 years ago and more reliant on external food aid.

A study was carried out on smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District Kenya between April and December to determine the incidence of periparturient conditions downer cow syndrome, dystocia, milk fever and retained placenta among others in smallholder dairy cattle herds and the associated factors plausible predictor variables; age, parity and management systems among others from a total of dairy cattle. Data were collected during farm visits by observation, interviews using semi-structured questionnaires and clinical examination of animals.

The most common conditions encountered were downer cow syndrome Animals that had dystocia were 3. In addition, animals with dystocia were From this study it can be concluded that downer cow syndrome, dystocia, mastitis, metritis, milk fever and retained placenta were the most common periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu division of Kiambu district. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease FMD in the arid and semi-arid areas where the pastoral mode of livestock rearing is pre-dominant in Kenya especially in the Somali Eco-system.

The samples were screened against the five serotypes of FMD known to be in circulation in Kenya i. The overall sero-prevalence of FMD in the Somali-ecosystem was found to be Twenty seven percent of all animals sampled tested positive for only one serotype while There was a high prevalence p 0. Wajir district recorded the highest prevalence There was no significant sero-prevalence variation in relation to sex while older animals had higher sero-prevalences.

The pastoral mode of livestock production, porous borders and wildlife inter-phase are significant factors that need consideration for effective control programmes. The greatest challenge to material characterization by XRF technique is encountered in direct trace analysis of complex matrices. Scatter peaks may further be used for QA characterization via the light elements. Modern wireless systems are placing greater emphasis on antenna designs for future development in communication technology because the antenna is a key element in the overall communication system.

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A Microstrip Antenna is well suited for wireless communication due to its light weight, low volume and low profile planar configuration which can be easily conformed to the host surface. In this paper, an optimization method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system ANFIS for determining the parameters used in the design of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna is presented.

By calculating and optimizing the patch dimensions and the feed point of a rectangular microstrip antenna, this paper shows that ANFIS produces good results that are in agreement with Ansoft HFSS This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy CFL stability condition which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain FDTD method.

Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is also presented. Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord.

An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors. Design: A whole population prospective cohort study. Methods: registered Kenya rugby union KRU players were studied throughout the season. Data on their demographics, injury incidence, pattern and severity were gathered. Results: There were backs and forwards. One hundred and two 1 injuries for 60 league games match player hours were recorded. The incidence of injuries was Lower limb injuries were the most common Players were most prone to injuries in the in tackle scenario Conclusion: The injury incidence recorded contrast the earlier Kenyan data but is comparable to international amateur level incidence, uniqueness of the Kenyan environment notwithstanding.

Uterine artery undergoes structural modifications at different physiologic states.